Nicosia, Cyprus

Space Systems Solutions (S3) Ltd

Solutions for Space

Providing Space Technologies and Solutions

Excelling in space space-borne and ground based technologies and systems.
Providing space solutions for a better technological world of tomorrow.


Space Systems Solutions (S3) was established in 2016 with a focus of developing a space sector in Cyprus.

S3 brings together key individuals from around the globe bringing a unique set of skills and disciplines.

In only 4 years S3 has won 5 EU Horizon 2020, 1 European Space Agency (ESA) and 2 Research and Innovation Foundation (RIF) contracts and became involved with a number of space based missions and in the development of spaceborne technologies that have strong potential terrestrial and societal applications.

Senior Management

Chief Executive Officer

Marcello Coradini

Marcello Coradini started his academic career in Italy during the golden age of planetary exploration in the 1970's and he contributed, together with a small group of enthusiastic colleagues, to the establishment of this discipline both in Italy and Europe.

He joined the European Space Agency in April 1987 with the specific task to initiate a program of exploration of Solar System Exploration. As Coordinator of the Solar System Missions (1987-2010), he has been in charge of planning and overseeing the implementation of Solar System missions at ESA. Among the many missions he brought to fruition it is worth mentioning: Cassini/Huygens, Mars Express, Venus Express, Rosetta, BepiColombo.

Chief Operating Officer

George Danos

George A Danos, is a space scientist, engineer, astronomer, entrepreneur and science communicator. He is eminent alumnus of Imperial College London.

He is the President of the Cyprus Space Exploration Organisation (CSEO) and the President of the Parallel Parliament for Entrepreneurship of the Republic of Cyprus. He is Council Member - the highest governing body - of the international Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), and Vice-chair of COSPAR's Panel on Innovative Solutions (PoIS). He serves as Middle East & Africa Regional Coordinator for the Moon Village Association (MVA). He is an Academician of the International Academy of Astronautics.

He was Founder and Chief Technical Officer of Virgin Biznet, one of most lucrative business ventures of Sir Richard Branson's Virgin Group.

Chief Scientist

Dr Enrico Flamini

Dr. Enrico Flamini graduated in Physics at Roma University "La Sapienza" in 1977, with a thesis on X-Ray spectroscopy applied to Lunar Apollo Samples. He has More than 100 papers published, Co-editor of Special issues of Planetary Space Science, Editor of the “Encyclopedic Atlas of Terrestrial Impact Crater”, Springer 2019; first author of the monography dedicated to the Cassini Mission, Nuovo Cimento 2019; two more books in press. Main Awards:
  • - Officier de l’Ordre National du Mérite de France.
  • - Exceptional Public Service Gold Medal by NASA, 2008.
  • - Laurel Award by Aviation Week & Space Technology, 1997.
  • - Laurel for Team achievement by IAA, 2006.
  • - IAU awarded him with an asteroid named 18099-Flamini.

Public Relations Manager

Colm Larkin

Colm Larkin, an expert in media and science communication. He is Head of Education and Outreach of CSEO, assisting the organisation to becoming an identifiable respected NGO and to successfully reach-out to the wider public. In his current capacity he led the many highly skilled volunteers and scientists of CSEO into formulating the organisation’s Space Education Programme, which is successfully disseminated to schools throughout Cyprus and in certain instances to schools abroad (Europe, USA and China). He is the Director of the International Astronomy Education Centre of the IAU, hosted and operated in Cyprus by CSEO. He is an Academician of the International Academy of Astronautics.


S3 is currently involved in 5 EU, 1 ESA and 1 RIS projects furthering space exploration and bringing the benefits of extraterrestrial discoveries to earth.


STructural stABiLity risk assEssment

Europe’s Cultural Heritage (CH) is at risk, endangered by environmental processes enhanced by climate changes and anthropogenic pressure. Specifically the slow (landslides, subsidence) and seismic (earthquake) movements of the ground have a strong impact on the structural stability of the CH.

STABLE addresses the design and development of a Thematic Platform, combining structural stability models, damage assessment simulation tools, advanced remote sensing, in-situ monitoring technologies, geotechnics and cadastral data sets with WebGIS application for mapping and long term monitoring of CH. This will enable effective monitoring and management of the CH to prevent, or at least reduce, catastrophic damages.

To have an idea of the dimension of the phenomena, the damage on the CH asset declared by the Italian Ministry of CH, caused by the recent earthquakes in Centre Italy, has been assessed at 2 Billion Eur. In this scenario, authorities in charge to CH preservation have a strong requirement for systematic, effective, usable and affordable tools and services to forecast and monitor the degradation process to enable preventive maintenance and to reduce the cost of the restoration.

STABLE will coordinate the existing expertise and research efforts of the participant beneficiaries into a synergetic plan of collaborations and exchanges of personnel to offer a comprehensive transfer of knowledge and training environment for the researchers in the specific area. The development of Platform will constitute for scientists the way to share and improve CH safeguard methods, and for professionals to apply the most advanced technologies in the related fields.


REmote SEnsing techniques for ARCHaeology

Europe has rich and diverse cultural heritage resources, which include urban and rural landscapes, comprising standing monuments and archaeological remains. Nowadays Europe’s Cultural Heritage (CH) is at risk, endangered by environmental processes and anthropogenic pressures. Physical and chemical destruction and degradation of structures and artefacts amplify the natural deterioration and reduce the ability of the soil to preserve CH.

The broad spectra of Satellite Earth Observations (EO) provide the ideal platform to undertake a wide range of effective, cost-efficient and up-to-date programmable analysis, as a support to traditional tools. RESEARCH addresses the design and development of a multi-task platform, combining advanced remote sensing technologies with GIS application for mapping and long term monitoring of archaeological CH in order to identify changes due to climate changes and anthropic pressures.

In addition to physical damages, the intensive human activities and the effects of climate changes are responsible of the increase of soil erosion affecting structure stability and producing significant negative consequences on the conservation of the archaeological artefacts. In this scenario, authorities in charge to CH preservation have a strong requirement for systematic, effective, usable and affordable tools and services to monitor the degradation process to enable preventive maintenance and to reduce the cost of the restoration.

The EO processing chain will address the major risks affecting CH including the degradation due to soil erosion, land movement and vegetation as well as risks due to anthropic pressure. RESEARCH will coordinate the existing expertise and research efforts of seven beneficiaries into a synergetic plan of collaborations and exchanges of personnel to offer a comprehensive transfer of knowledge and training environment for the researchers in the specific area.


IN-siTu Instrument for Mars and Earth dating applications

As the ongoing robotic exploration to Mars has made some tantalising discoveries, the next major step should be retrieving samples from the Martian surface, so they can be investigated in detail in terrestrial laboratories. However, considering the huge costs associated to such missions, an in-situ dating of rock samples is a more cost-effective approach.

IN-TIME project addresses the technological and economic viability of a leading-edge instrument for dating of Mars’ surface: a miniaturized Luminescence dating instrument for in-situ examination.

Accurate estimation of absolute ages is required in order to understand Mars surface and atmosphere evolutionary processes. Furthermore knowledge on occurrence and time frequency of such processes allow a hazard evaluation for locations/areas, essential for future deployments, missions and eventually humans on Mars.

Thanks to the development of its innovative technology, and in addition to planetary exploration application, it will also address Earth's field applications as a light and portable dating instrument in geology and archaeology as well as a risk assessment tool for accident and emergency dosimetry and nuclear mass-casualty events.

Diagram of the In Time instrument


Development of Utilities Management Platform for the case of Quarantine and Lockdown

In 2020 Europe went through a very significant economic and social crisis, namely the response to the disease of Coronavirus. Over 200 million European citizens were obliged to observe restrictive measures, in some cases lock down measures, in order for governments and local authorities of the Member States of the European Union to address and limit the problem of the spread of the virus.

Through this situation a number of problems emerged, one of which relates to the management of building utilities under such conditions. Specifically, in a very few days most of the activity of the European Economy shifted from the office environment to homes, leading to several problems in relation to the completeness and integrity of utilities such as power outages, water shortage and insufficient internet connection.

The initiative entitled Development of Utilities Management Platform for the case of Quarantine and Lockdown - eUMaP aims to implement all those activities that will lead to the development of an open platform through which local authorities will be able to plan and manage the demand and supply of building utilities in case of quarantine or lock down.

The platform will be developed through a Research and Innovation Staff Exchange (RISE) program. eUMaP platform will be based on the rationale of earth observation, and the recording of the required network information in open BIM platforms of five European capital cities (Rome, Berlin, Athens, Vilnius, Nicosia). The platform will be piloted in study areas with the aim of optimizing it and delivering it as an open platform upon completion of the program.

Important aspects of the Industry 4.0 are Internet-of-Services (IoS) and Internet-of-Energy (IoE), which determine how the natural resources and networks, including electricity, water, waste and telecommunication are used in a proper way. Ac-cordingly, IoT, IoS, Internet-of-People (IoP) and IoE are elements that can create a connection between the concepts of Industry 4.0 and smart cities and therefore Industry 4.0 can be seen as a part of smart cities 2.

Furthermore, the allocation of resources, including products, materials, energy and water can be realised in a more efficient way on the basis of intelligent cross-linked value creation modules 3.

The up-to-date and real-time information and data that can be collected and transferred using CPS systems can make ensure the implementation of timely and efficient actions that will be able to keep operations running in stable and secure conditions, without compromising the needs of the end users and eliminating a number of problems in relation to with the completeness and integrity of utilities that have been observed such as power outages, water shortage and insufficient internet connection.


Economy bY spacE

Space technology connected with Artificial Intelligence and machine learning techniques is one of the most rapidly developing field of science and also play a key role to control disaster by space like Covid-19 outbreak. While space technologies have been successfully applied to a small number of macroeconomy and heath care related matters over the last decade, there is neither a significant utilization of space elements nor a systematic analysis of needs for space assets in this sector yet.

There are a significant number of indirect parameters observable from space that can be correlated to the impact on the economy of natural, health (including epidemic) and man-made disasters. Classical environment parameters (geographical, climatological and hydrogeological) and man induced impact on the environment (pollution, heat) can be combined with economic parameters of human activities impacted by the epidemic including transportation, industry, and commerce.

Specific human activities can be directly correlated with the progression of the diseases i.e. increase of heat delivered by crematorium in the affected areas as well as in the dwelling areas due to lock-down restrictions.

All these “observed parameters” need to be correlated to macro parameters related to the progress of the epidemic and the impact of the infection to the economy at different scales. At medium- and long-term time scale, this methodology enables the near real-time monitoring of macroeconomic parameters during the recovery phase following the end of the emergency outbreak.

The project EYE intends to propose a prototype service based on Copernicus data, automatic image processing supported by artificial intelligence integrated with modelling and statistic and geospatial data into an IT platform able to provide econometric and epidemiologic nowcasting and forecasting data.

Venice October 2019 (left) and March 18th 2020. The slowdown of ferry traffic is evident. Transportation by ship, road and plane gives direct information on key economic areas like tourism, citizen’s mobility and import / export of goods.

This satellite map shows the drastic drop of pollution in China during the Covid-19 outbreak with a difference between the map of only 1 month early in 2020. Nitrogen dioxide is a harmful gas emitted by motor vehicles and factories and in the city of Wuhan there is almost no trace of it in the air. A similar situation was not seen until 2008 during the economic recession, although the reduction was much more gradual.


In a little more than a decade, the space sector has experienced considerable development throughout the world, with greater impacts on the larger economy boosted by both globalisation and digitalisation.

In the context of the growing interest for the so-called “Space Economy” there is an increasing awareness of the importance of the utilization of the available space assets for the global and local economy. Space technology in combination with image processing is also a powerful tool to monitor in near real-time the impact of natural and man-made disasters, like Covid-19 epidemic outbreak, on the economy at different geographical scale.

Policymakers, Public Authorities, researchers and private actors operating in the field of economy and finance are strongly interested in how space technologies can be linked to socio-economic impacts providing update nowcasting and forecasting assessment.

MICROS addresses the use of remote sensing assets and specifically the Copernicus services, combined with image processing techniques and econometric model to assess a series of economic indicators suitable to monitor in near real-time the economy trends at different geographical scale and assess the impact of policies, laws and crisis events to real economy.

MICROS has the potential to provide near real time indicators of the impact on the economy in those countries and geographical areas experiencing Covid-19 outbreak, where direct information and data are not fully reliable and/or provided with large time delay. In fact, current econometric models are based on statistical data provided with several months of delay in the best case.

MICROS integrates “Mapping and Gaps Analysis” at all scales and highlight gaps in the current knowledge, contribute to the UN SDGs2 and Sendai Framework3.

In the pictures at side7 Long Beach container yard on February 8th (left) and March 17th (right) showing the slowing activity of business in container transportation. The number of containers is one economic parameter that can be taken in consideration to measure the slowdown of the business activities.

Remote Sensing and Probing

S3 is also developing capabilities of remote sensing technique with magnetometers and gravimeters. These two techniques have numerous applications and the potential for opening up lucrative remote sensing markets.

A survey of the study area will be conducted by using a magnetometer and a gravimeter mounted on an aircraft and the data collected will be sent via satellite to the processing centre for processing. An airplane capable of overflying the area at an altitude of 100-150 meters from the ground will be identified.

We will have two pilots familiar with the area in order to guarantee continuous operations during the survey. Logistics bases for the airplane will be identified in order to guarantee timely refueling and required periodic servicing to the plane.

The key tasks that will be carried out in this project are described below. They are grouped into:
  • - Logistics and survey preparation
  • - Survey activities
  • - Data processing and analysis
  • - Reporting

Depth estimation by eigenvector analysis (l.), inverted base of sediments (c.l.), interpreted lineaments in RTP map (c.r.) and in cluster analysis intensity map (r.). These examples demonstrate a few aspects from the wide variety of quantitative analysis and interpretation techniques; depending on the amount of constraining data, gravity and magnetic data can significantly reduce the ambiguity of geological models and assist in defining further exploration programs in a cost-efficient manner.

Drone Defensive System

The use of civilian drones has increased dramatically in recent years. Likewise, drones are fast gaining popularity around the world. However, drone use in a problematic manner has stirred public concerns for example when thousands of flights were delayed or canceled just before Christmas 2018 after two illegal drones flew on to the runway at Gatwick airport or even when the pre-dawn attacks on last Sept the 14th knocked out in Arabia more than half of the top global exporter's output – 5% of the global oil supply - or about 5.7 million barrels per day.

A wide range of counter-drone solutions has been proposed, from conventional radar to using trained eagles to attack the aircraft. Spectrum RF monitoring to detect and geolocate drone control signals is one solution that has become popular in recent years. Spectrum RF monitoring has been also greatly developed as an important technique in a comprehensive counter-drone system. However, when active radar techniques, may not be used, as when the drone flies at a few meters altitude from grounds or in airports proximity where interferences with control tower communications must be avoided or when RF techniques fail because drone flies in un-attended & GPS driven silent mode, minimizing its RF emissions, the Audio techniques may provide the ancillary (proper) solution.

Indeed, whatever the drone may try to camouflage such as its radar reflectivity or minimizing its RF emissions it cannot avoid creating in the air medium in which flies those large turbulences and large detectable signals unavoidable to sustain its weight in flight. Moreover, the audio signal signatures, generated by the multiple number and complexity of the rotors, may provide a precise mean for their classification.

The general objectives of the project are to develop a system that intercepts drones using audio and radio frequencies and to promote the system globally. This project offers a complete solution, integrating the state of the art of the passive and active detection technologies with an optional jamming active counter system able to completely stop both communications and onboard GPS signal processing. S3 is now aiming to reach TRL 8 through a system prototype demonstration in an operational environment to the global market as well as matching currently expressed demand from international customers.

SOund Detection And Ranging – SODAR

It can operate in passive (just listening) or active (sending sound pulses and listening to the echoes) mode

The architecture of the High-Reliability Automated Drone Intercepting system, namely HR-ADIS hereafter, is:
  1. An interconnected network of N-intercepting nodes (being N minimum 3, typically at 750m distance)
  2. The Node is a single-pole (mast) hosting 7 acoustic antennas and audio emitters operating in monostatic mode to provide a networked array of SODARs (SOund Detection And Ranging) plus an RF integrated system over scanning the surrounding volume beyond the acoustic range.
  3. Six of the above seven audio Antennas will be mounted to cover the entire 360-degree azimuthal scenario or part of it according to the user need. In elevation, each of these Antennas will cover about 60 degrees and will be mounted with an offset of about 10 degrees from the horizon line. The seventh audio Antenna will cover a cone along the vertical zenith direction perpendicular to the ground, viewing the remaining 20 polar degrees (from 70 to 90 degrees not covered by the six azimuthal Antennas).
  4. The single-pole mast has a diameter of about 20 cm and a total height of 4.0 meters with an exposed part of 3.5 meters and a subsoil merged part of 0.5 meters. The pole will integrate all the necessary electronics inside it and will be self-powered by the integrated solar flexible panels. It is conceived to appear anonymous with antennas well camouflaged in its inner and not visible from the outside. The individual pole stations shall be activated remotely and part of their antennas and related processing can be intentionally excluded or entitled to the Drones identification process.
  5. The main central system can collect from the N-networked nodes all the data, carry out the calculations and estimate the position and direction of the objects in flight.
  6. Data transfers will be based on mobile LTE/4G communications when in the presence of a mobile digital mobile network infrastructure. In this case, each pole node will transmit the complete raw audio and RF tracks to the Central Remote System for the synthesis of a more articulated identification process. In the lack of the digital mobile network, long-range anti-jamming LoRa communications to the central station will be also optionally supported, both for command and data transmissions
  7. The entire system will usually operate in silent, passive mode i.e. in listening only. SODAR acoustic emissions in the 3/5kHz band will be activated only when from the combined AUDIO/RF recorded spectra the uncertainty of the detected position would turn to be too high.
  8. The main central system once estimated the direction and distance of the target will activate the anti-drone GPS/Communication jamming system for the selected jamming directions.

GIS & BI’s

S3 is deeply involved in the development of a number of interactive data platforms thanks to internal developments and the work carried out in the frame of a number of projects.

A geographic information system (GIS) is a framework for gathering, managing, and analyzing data. Rooted in the science of geography, GIS integrates many types of data. It analyzes spatial location and organizes layers of information into visualizations using maps and 3D scenes. ​With this unique capability, GIS reveals deeper insights into data, such as patterns, relationships, and situations—helping users make smarter decisions.

Business Intelligence (BI’s) platforms enable people import, clean, and analyze data from databases, emails, videos, survey responses, and more. These data analyses provide mobile, desktop and real-time business intelligence so decision makers can act on insights to improve their organization.

BI platforms allow users to customize dashboards, create stunning data visualizations, build scorecards, and compare them to key performance indicators (KPIs).

The following are only some of the real-world applications of BI software and what they can do for your organization:
  • - Visualize supply changes over time
  • - Forecast sales and profits
  • - Analyze the results of marketing campaigns
  • - Automate reporting
  • - Automate report distribution to stakeholders
  • - Visualize sales and inventory with near real-time functionality
  • - Integrate with cloud-based, third party platforms like Amazon Web Services (AWS) and Microsoft Azure
  • - Embed dashboards into custom solutions for internal or external use